Accented letters and their surrogates
At the time of writing (May 2009) the Esperanto letters ĉĝĥĵŝŭ are readily available on most computers, though only if Unicode-compliant software and appropriate fonts are used (such as MS Word and the core fonts supplied with PCs and Macs).
The hexadecimal Unicode numbers of the accented letters are as follows.
Where appropriate software is not available (e.g. in text messaging), or if there are problems in keyboarding the accented symbols, various surrogates can be used. The Fundamento allows the use of ch gh hh jh sh u, but this both upsets alphabetical order and can lead to ambiguity (e.g. in the word flughaveno airport). The most widespread convention in current use is the x-convention, cx gx hx jx sx ux (or vx or w). Other possibilities include trailing circumflexes or apostrophes, thus c^ g^… or c' g'….